Major city and a military camp of the ancient Roman province of Moesia, Viminacium, is located near the town of Kostolac, where the river Mlava flows into the Danube, near the city Pozarevac in Serbia.
From all the information gathered, we can conclude that the present territories of the villages Stari Kostolac and Drmno, located 3km from Kostolac and 100km southeast of Belgrade, are situated within the limits of the urban territory of the ancient city of Viminacium.
It dates back to the 1st century AD when it had around 40.000 inhabitants, and is considered as one of the biggest cities of the time. It is located on the Roman road Via Militaris. After it had been completely destroyed in the 5th century by Atila the Hun it was entirely rebuilt by Justinian I. One century later it suffered complete destruction with the arrival of Slavic tribes. This archeological site occupies a total of 1100 acres of land with numerous remains of temples, streets, amphitheaters, palaces and genuine Roman baths.
Viminacium had the connections to all directions; it was a city on a crossroad. To the west, road leads to Margum, Singidunum and Sirmium, and it also goes on eastward and southward directly to the city Naissus. Thanks to the vicinity of the river Danube, the dominant waterway for the entire Europe, Viminacium had an important role for the Roman empires’ communication and commercial transactions. The town was given a status of a Roman citizen colony and it was highly autonomous. It was considered as a place of great strategic importance for the defense of the entire Roman Empire. Viminacium was proclaimed the capital of the province Moesia Superior.
The first archeological excavations started in 1882 guided by an architect Mihailo Valtrovic. Research has resulted in various items discovered on the site, preserved and kept in the National Museums in Belgrade and Pozarevac, which have over 40 000 rare items in their collection. 13 500 graves were also discovered; some of them even had frescoes portraying young women on their surface. With its fast growing economy, the city had a lot of wealthy citizens whose crypts were luxuriously decorated by the works of art of great artistic value. The grand amphitheater with 12 000 seats is one of the largest of its kind in the Balkans. One more interesting find is a 1 million year old mammoth skeleton excavated in 2009. Other significant finds were roman baths (thermae), remains of aqueducts, streets and city’s sewage system.
The tourist center Domus scientarium Viminacium is located on the very edge of this archeological place. It comprises an archeological museum, scientific library, laboratories, information center, conference room, a restaurant and a spa center.
The site is open for visits from the February 1st to the end of November. Working hours are 9am to 7pm and during spring and autumn they are shorter, from 10am to 5pm.Pre-arranged visits are organized on request.